Acute exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

COPD is characterized by incomplete reversible airflow limitation and is often associated with a smoking history and increasing age

In 2011, the GOLD Strategy developed the combined COPD assessment, which categorizes patients based on airflow limitation (FEV1), symptoms (using modified Medical Resource Council [mMRC] dyspnea scale or COPD Assessment Test [CAT] score) as well as exacerbation history. 


  1. Safka, Katherine A.; Wald, Joshua; Wang, Hongyu; McIvor, Luke; McIvor, Andrew (2017). GOLD Stage and Treatment in COPD: A 500 Patient Point Prevalence Study. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation, 4(1), 45–55. doi:10.15326/jcopdf.4.1.2016.0126